Carpet making is considered to be one of the ancient crafts.
Presently carpet weaving has grown into a big industry in the world. Though the
exact origin cannot be traced, its evolution began during the 16th century in
Persia. Historical evidences are also found that nomadic tribes have used
Types of Carpets
The Pazyryk Russian rug:
This dates back to the 5th century B.C. and was discovered by
the Russian archeologist Rudenko in the mountains of Siberia. This remarkable
work of art is housed in the Russian museum in St. Petersburg, knotted in both
the Pazyryk Turkish and Persian manner.
The Sinkiang fragment:
These were found from 3rd century to 6th century A.D. and were found by the
European explorers in Chinese Sinkiang province. The weaving is done in
geometrical designs and some are woven in Turkish knot while others are simple
loop pile. This type can be seen in London museum too. These are also available
in the Museum of Islamic in Berlin of Germany, Museum of New Delhi in India.
Egyptian and Mamluks:
Several distinct groups of earl piled carpet fragments were discovered in Cairo
in 1933 which came to be known as Fostat fragments. These have been named after
the area where they were formed.
Persia is known for its carpets since the 11th century and was on the top of
its glory during 15th century. The old pattern and designs were replaced
by beautiful new flowerlike designs which have impressed the Emperor Tamer Lane
, an Emperor of barbarism who could find time for these works of art. As such
the Chinese arts were employed by the Persian Emperor
The constant engagement in war with its neighboring Turkey,
Persia has gained development of the curvilinear designs carpet weaving in
Turkey and Persia disappeared by the 18th century. Ottoman weaving centers
continued to produce carpets during the 16th and 17th century.
Manufacture of Carpets
Rugs and carpets are made on handlooms in which there are two types :
1. Vertical Looms
2. Horizontal looms
The Process of Making
The warp or strings generally made of wool, cotton or animal hair or silk are
fastened longitudinally for which the loom acts as a frame. Silk, wool, and
cotton weft is passed over and under the wrap at a 90-degree angle. If the
piece is finely woven possibly we can use the weaving in this condition and
these are 'KILLIMS '. In other case the knots are tied on to the wraps and
tightly held in place by the wefts.
Weaving and Knotting
Before weaving the loom should be prepared with utmost care for
producing any type of carpet generally a few rows of Kilim are woven the
beginning to provide protection for the ends of the weaving, when a carpet or a
piled rug is to be made.
Types of Weave
Kilim Method of Weaving:
In this method of weaving there shall be no knots but shall
consist of wrap and weft. by passing the weft in between the wrap and from each
selvedge the weaving is done. The weft running part way across the weaving to
the part wherever the design changes which is also called slit tapestry weave,
mostly done in Persia.
Soumakh Method Weaving:
The method of weaving requires wrapping weft over 4 wraps before
drawing them back under the last two which is repeated from selvedge to
selvedge. Change of design takes place as in case of Kilim, expecting where
there be no slits left. These are made mostly in Persia.
These types of piled or knotted carpets are made in western countries. This
requires a great deal of work when compared to the other kilim or Soumakh which
are also very costly. The curvilinear designs can only be successfully produced
in this method due to their intricate nature.
Vernah Weaving Technique:
The combined technique of Kilim or Soumakh weaving is known as
vernah. In this a part of weaving is done in Soumakh and other is done by
Kilim. These are not considered to be good for use in western countries.
Countries Where Carpets Are Produced:
Turkey, Persia, China, Tibet, Cuba, Karbagh, Central Anatolia, Eastern
Anatolia, The Caucasus, Kazak, Daghestan, Azerbaijan, Turkestan, Afghanistan,
India, Pakistan, Britain, Ireland, Spain, North Africa, Austria, North America
etc., are the countries producing carpets.